Hfcs International Agreements

The Kigali amendment to the Montreal Protocol is an international agreement to gradually reduce the consumption and production of hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs). The amendment was accepted at the 28th meeting of the parties to the Montreal Protocol in Kigali on October 15, 2016. In Decision XXVIII/1, they adopted an amendment to the protocol (the Kigali amendment). [1] The Fund is managed by an executive committee similarly represented by seven industrialized countries and seven Article 5 countries, elected annually by a meeting of the parties. Each year, the committee reports on its activities at the parties` meeting. The Multilateral Fund`s work on the ground in developing countries is being conducted by four implementation agencies that have contractual agreements with the Executive Committee:[40] Given all these factors and more, the Montreal Protocol is considered one of the most successful environmental agreements of all time. What the parties to the protocol have accomplished since 1987 is unprecedented and remains an inspiring example of what international cooperation can achieve in its best form. The Kigali amendment comes at a time when countries have concluded a trifecta of agreements to combat climate change. In December 2015, more than 190 countries adopted the Paris climate agreement and formalized the goal of keeping global warming at 1.5-2 degrees Celsius above pre-industrial levels. Since the Montreal Protocol came into force, atmospheric concentrations of major chlorofluorocarbons and associated chlorinated hydrocarbons have flattened or decreased. [43] Halon concentrations have continued to increase due to the release of halons currently stored in fire extinguishers, but their rate of increase has slowed and their frequency is expected to decrease by about 2020.

The concentration of HCFCs has also increased drastically, at least in part, as many uses (for example. B as a solvent or refrigerant) replaced HCFCs with HCFCs. Although there have been reports of attempts by individuals to circumvent the ban. B, for example by smuggling undeveloped CFCs to industrialized countries, the overall level of compliance was high. The 2010 statistical analysis shows a clear positive signal from the Montreal Protocol to stratospheric ozone. [44] As a result, the Montreal Protocol has often been described as the most successful international environmental agreement to date. In a 2001 report, NASA found that ozone dilution over Antarctica had remained the same thickness over the past three years,[45] but in 2003, the hole in the ozone layer grew to its second largest size. [46] In the latest scientific assessment of the impact of the Montreal Protocol (2006), it states: "The Montreal Protocol works: there are clear signs of reduced atmospheric exposure to ozone-depleting substances and some early signs of stratospheric ozone recovery." [47] However, a recent study suggests a relative increase in CFCs due to an unknown source. [48] Treaties are also characterized by the unique utility of global action, with only 14 years between basic scientific research (1973) and the international convention signed (1985 and 1987).

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