2 One of the biggest challenges of today in Central Asia is the targeted shift from the old Soviet-era principles of water distribution to the Integrated Water Resource Management System (IWRM). This is not a purely technical issue, but an integrated approach to water use in areas such as agriculture, energy and industry. In Soviet times, the water management system was centralized to avoid conflicts over water allocation. It also included its own single system of mandatory energy supply from upstream countries (Kyrgyzstan and Turkmenistan) downstream (Kazakhstan, Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan) in exchange for water-related services. The shift from "centralism" to water management led to imbalances in the distribution of water resources, which immediately caused economic tensions between Central Asian countries. 30Since the collapse of the Soviet Union, the legal framework for intergovernmental cooperation in the field of cross-border water resources in Central Asia has been developing. The biggest challenge for the new framework has been to maintain the regional water-for-energy cooperation system (Granita et al., 2012). The legal and institutional framework developed since the 1990s has proved incapable of resolving the conflict of interest, but has remained strong enough to avoid further escalation. There is currently an urgent need to strengthen and modernize the existing cooperation framework in order to properly implement the Nexus approach to the management of the Aral Marine Basin. Gubaidullina Mara, 2015, Regional Joint Water Management in Central Asia. Water resources are the rescue of the need for sectoral integration, understanding and common policies of applied post-Sovietism? ", in Pierre Chabal (ed.), Europe-Asia Interregional Competitions in the 21st century, Brussels: Peter Lang, 227-247.
22The legal significance of these provisions can be summed up as follows. First, the same right of states to use the international water course does not necessarily mean that all riparian countries have an equal share of a certain stream. Second, the rational use of water does not correspond to the most productive use or use of the most effective known methods9, but is defined by recognized international water policy instruments. Third, given that countries take appropriate measures to minimize environmental damage within and across borders10, there is no doubt that no state has the right to use its land or allow it to cause damage to the territory or property (for example. (B) cross-border water resources) or the people who reside there. if the case has serious consequences and the harm is demonstrated by clear and convincing evidence.11 The implementation of fair, appropriate and non-harmful cross-border water management is subject to the obligation for states to cooperate (UN Water Convention, art.