After the fall of power by the BJP government led by Narendra Modi, the first of three agreements, the Memorandum of Understanding on logistics exchange (LEMOA), was signed in 2016. This was followed by the Communication and Security Compatibility Agreement (COMCASA), signed in 2018. The decisive element behind LEMOA is mutual trust. Without confidence, no country will be prepared to suspend its military and strategic assets, such as warships, at another country`s facilities. A sofa should clarify the conditions under which the foreign army can operate. As a general rule, purely military issues, such as base location and access to facilities, are covered by separate agreements. A SOFA focuses more on legal issues related to military individuals and property. This may include issues such as entry and exit, tax obligations, postal services or the employment conditions of nationals of the host country, but the most controversial issues are the civil and criminal competences of bases and staff. In civil matters, SOFS provides for how civilian damage caused by the armed forces is determined and paid for. Criminal issues vary, but the typical provision of the United States is that U.S.
courts have jurisdiction over crimes committed either by a serving member against another serving member or by a serving member as part of his or her military duty, but the host country retains jurisdiction for other crimes.  At first, there was concern that the signing of LEMOA would make India another military base for the United States, but at the signing ceremony, Parrikar said, "LeMOA has nothing to do with the creation of a base." The military agreement was signed during the third round of the 2-2 ministerial dialogue and paves the way for a comprehensive and close partnership between India and the United States. While the U.S. military has the largest presence abroad, making it most SOFAs, the United Kingdom, France, Australia, Germany Italy, Russia, Spain and many other nations also deploy military personnel abroad and negotiate SOFAs with their host countries. In the past, the Soviet Union had SOFS with most of its satellite states. While most SOFS in the United States are public, some remain classified.  The benefits that the United States derives from its alliances go far beyond the military. U.S. allies support U.S. political priorities – such as sanctioning Iran`s and North Korea`s illegal weapons programs and providing financial assistance to reconstruction efforts in Iraq and Afghanistan.
Allies like Japan are working with the United States to promote fair and transparent international standards on issues such as digital governance and cybersecurity. And within the G7, U.S. allies have coordinated to address issues ranging from global refugee crises to international health standards to the education of women and children. To put it simply, the last 70 years of American international leadership would not have been possible without the support of American allies. India and the United States on Tuesday (October 27th) signed the Basic Exchange and Cooperation Agreement (BECA), which, together with the two agreements previously signed – the Logistics Exchange Agreement (LEMOA) and the Communications Compatibility and Security Agreement (COMCASA) – a troika of "founding pacts" for deep military cooperation between the two countries.